Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a general term that describes a disease of the heart or blood vessels. Blood flow to the heart, brain or body can be reduced because of a: blood clot (thrombosis) build-up of fatty deposits inside an artery, leading to the artery hardening and narrowing (atherosclerosis)CVDs constitute a class of diseases that includes: coronary artery diseases (e.g. angina, heart attack), heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, thromboembolicThis puts an increased strain on the heart, and can lead to: angina – chest pain caused by restricted blood flow to the heart muscle. heart attacks – where the blood flow to the heart muscle is suddenly blocked. heart failure – where the heart is unable to pump blood around the body properly.The most important behavioural risk factors of heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use and harmful use of alcohol. The effects of behavioural risk factors may show up in individuals as raised blood pressure, raised blood glucose, raised blood lipids, and overweight and obesity.The Nation’s Risk Factors and CDC’s Response. Leading risk factors for heart disease and stroke are high blood pressure, high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, diabetes, smoking and secondhand smoke exposure, obesity, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity.