hypertension – High Blood Pressure – உயர் குருதி அமுக்கம்
Hypertension, or high blood pressure, has no outward signs and may be hazardous if left untreated. You are at risk for heart attack, stroke, and other issues if you have high blood pressure. Adults with hyper tension are almost half as likely not to be aware of it. Exams are thus essential. You may maintain a healthy blood pressure level by making dietary adjustments, exercising, and taking medication.
High blood pressure: what is it?
When your artery walls are continually being pushed against by too much blood, you have high blood pressure. Over time, this destroys your arteries, which puts you at risk for catastrophic problems including heart attack and stroke. The term “hyper tension” is another name for this widespread ailment.
High blood pressure is referred regarded by medical professionals as a “silent killer” since it often causes no symptoms. Therefore, even though you may not feel anything is wrong, your body is still suffering from the harm.
The force or pressure of blood pressing against blood vessel walls is measured as blood pressure (BP). Your blood pressure measurement is two numbers:
Systolic blood pressure, which appears as the top number, gauges the force exerted on your artery walls while your heart beats or contracts.
The diastolic blood pressure is shown as the bottom number. This gauge monitors your heart’s relaxation-induced pressure on your artery walls in between beats.
In millimeters of mercury (mmHg), blood pressure is measured by medical professionals.
How can I tell if my blood pressure is high?
The only method to determine if your blood pressure is excessively high is to get it tested. Even if you feel healthy, you may do this by scheduling an annual exam with a medical professional. Even if you have high blood pressure, you won’t feel ill. Thus, these examinations are essential and potentially life-saving. Your doctor may advise lifestyle modifications and/or medication if your blood pressure is higher than usual.
What exactly qualifies as high blood pressure?
Depending on where you reside, there are subtle differences in how high blood pressure is defined. High blood pressure (hypertension) is defined by healthcare professionals as:
a systolic blood pressure reading of at least 130 mmHg on the top number, and/or
a diastolic blood pressure reading of at least 80 mmHg.
Healthcare professionals in Europe describe hyper tension as:
at least 140 mmHg as the highest number, and/or
a minimum of 90 mmHg for the lowest number.
High blood pressure: how widespread is it?
Blood pressure issues are extremely typical. In the US, 47% of people are impacted. About 116 million individuals are included in this. 37 million of them have a blood pressure reading of at least 140/90 mmHg.
Over 670,000 fatalities in the U.S. were brought on by or related to by high blood pressure in 2020.
According to the World Health Organization, hypertension affects more than 1.2 billion individuals worldwide between the ages of 30 and 79. About two thirds of such people reside in low- or middle-income nations.
Causes and Symptoms
What symptoms and indicators are associated with high blood pressure?
Most of the time, high blood pressure is silent. You could have high blood pressure for years without realizing it, which is why healthcare professionals refer to it as a “silent killer.” In fact, according to the World Health Organization, 46% of persons with hypertension are unaware of their condition.
You may suffer symptoms like headaches, heart palpitations, or nosebleeds if your blood pressure is 180/120 mmHg or higher. A hypertensive crisis with this high blood pressure need urgent medical attention.
What forms of high blood pressure are there?
Your doctor will determine which of two forms of high blood pressure you have:
the initial hypertension. About 90% of adult instances of this more prevalent kind of high blood pressure in the U.S. are caused by age and lifestyle choices including insufficient exercise.
Hypertension that is secondary. This sort of high blood pressure may be brought on by a number of illnesses or medications you’re taking.
Hype rtension, or high blood pressure, may occur in both primary and secondary forms. For instance, a new secondary cause might increase an already high blood pressure level.
You may also hear about elevated blood pressure that fluctuates depending on the circumstance. These kinds of hypertension are:
Your blood pressure is normal at home, but it is raised in a medical environment.
Your blood pressure is normal at a medical facility, but it is raised at home.
Your blood pressure is higher at home and at medical facilities if you have chronic hyper tension.
Nocturnal hyper tension: When you sleep, your blood pressure rises.
Why does hyper tension occur?
The etiology of primary hypertension is not known with certainty. Typically, it is caused by a combination of various circumstances. Typical reasons include
unhealthy eating habits, such as a sodium-rich diet.
absence of exercise.
a lot of people drink alcohol-containing drinks.
Healthcare professionals can pinpoint at least one specific cause of secondary hypertension. The following are typical causes of secondary hypertension:
a few drugs, such as NSAIDs, oral contraceptives (the pill), and immunosuppressants.
Aldosteronism primary (Conn’s syndrome).
substance abuse for fun (including cocaine and amphetamines).
disorders that damage the arteries and veins in your kidneys are known as renal vascular disorders. One frequent example is renal artery stenosis.
Utilization of tobacco, including smoking, vaping, and smokeless tobacco.
Is hypertension inherited?
Genes, according to researchers, may contribute to high blood pressure. You have a higher chance of getting high blood pressure if one or more of your immediate biological family members do.
What are the causes of high blood pressure risk factors?
The following are risk factors that increase your risk of having high blood pressure:
having biological relatives who have diabetes, heart disease, or high blood pressure.
being more than 55.
a Black person.
having certain medical disorders, such as thyroid illness, metabolic syndrome, chronic renal disease, or obstructive sleep apnea.
being obese or overweight.
not working out enough.
ingesting salt-rich meals.
utilizing tobacco or tobacco products.
What are this condition’s complications?
Serious health issues caused by untreated hyper tension include:
CAD, or coronary artery disease.
disease of the peripheral arteries.
renal failure and kidney disease.
Tests and Diagnosis
How is hypertension identified?
By taking an arm cuff reading, healthcare professionals may identify elevated blood pressure. Typically, healthcare professionals take your blood pressure during yearly checkups and other visits.
Your doctor may diagnose high blood pressure in you if you have high blood pressure readings at two or more visits. To find potential reasons, they will inquire about your medical history and lifestyle.
Blood pressure classifications
New blood pressure recommendations were released in 2017 by the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association. These are used by medical professionals in the US to identify and manage excessive blood pressure. The table below lists the four groups into which blood pressure measurements fall according to the standards. If you have stage 1 hypertension or stage 2 hyper tension, you have high blood pressure.
A diagnosis of high blood pressure in the US denotes either a top number of at least 130 or a bottom number of at least 80.
Administration and Therapy
What medications are used to treat high blood pressure?
Treatments for high blood pressure involve both medication and lifestyle modifications. Based on your blood pressure measurements, the reasons why you have high blood pressure, and any underlying illnesses you may have, healthcare specialists will prescribe a course of therapy.
Adapt your lifestyle to reduce your blood pressure
You may be wondering whether there are any natural ways to reduce your blood pressure. It is possible to reduce your blood pressure naturally in certain circumstances. If you have increased blood pressure or stage 1 hypertension, for instance, your doctor could advise beginning with lifestyle adjustments.
Here are some tried-and-true methods for naturally lowering blood pressure:
Maintain a healthy weight for you. You might get a target range from your healthcare professional.
Adopt a balanced diet. The DASH diet is one example. This diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products.
Cut down on the salt. You should aim to consume no more than 1,500 mg of salt per day. If at first you find this too challenging, start by lowering your daily dose by at least 1,000 mg.
Obtain enough potassium. Incorporate 3,500 to 5,000 milligrams throughout your diet each day, preferably via food rather than pills. Bananas, avocados, and potatoes (with the skin) are a few examples of foods rich in potassium.
Exercise. To get started, ask your healthcare professional for advice. Start off slowly and increase your weekly aerobic exercise time to 150 minutes. Additionally beneficial is resistance exercise, such as using modest weights.
Drink with moderation. If you decide to consume alcoholic drinks, do so sparingly.
In order to reduce blood pressure, doctors may advise making lifestyle modifications in addition to prescription drugs.
prescription drugs for lowering blood pressure
When beginning therapy, four groups of blood pressure drugs are considered “first-line” (the most efficient and often recommended).
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors prevent the body from making the hormone angiotensin II, which it utilizes to regulate blood pressure. Your blood arteries don’t constrict when the medication inhibits angiotensin II.
ARBs prevent the same hormone from attaching to receptors in the blood vessels. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). ARBs function similarly to ACE inhibitors in preventing blood vessel constriction.
Calcium is prevented from accessing the muscle cells in your heart and blood arteries by calcium channel blockers, enabling these vessels to relax.
Diuretics (water or fluid tablets) reduce the quantity of fluid in your blood by flushing out excess sodium from your body. Diuretics are often used in combination with other medications for high blood pressure, sometimes in a single tablet.
To best control your blood pressure, your doctor may combine these first-line medicines with other medications.
Consult your healthcare practitioner about potential side effects. Call your physician if you have any side effects that worry you. They could try a different medicine or adjust your dosage. Don’t abruptly stop taking the medication.
Some drugs need to be avoided when pregnant. So be sure to inform your healthcare practitioner if you are or think you could be pregnant.
Is it possible to lower blood pressure?
You may, thankfully, take steps to lower your chance of getting high blood pressure. These consist of:
Adhere to a healthy eating schedule. This is a crucial step in maintaining normal blood pressure. The DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) places a strong emphasis on increasing your intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.
Limit your salt intake. You need to cut down on your salt intake to avoid hypertension. Try to limit it to 1,500 mg per day or less.
Maintain a healthy weight. Maintaining a healthy weight goes hand in hand with eating the right things. Your blood pressure will drop to healthful levels if you lose extra weight via diet and exercise.
Keep moving. Walking is a simple exercise that might help you lose weight and decrease your blood pressure.
Consume alcohol sparingly. Blood pressure may be increased by having more than one drink (for women or persons assigned female at birth) or more than two drinks (for men or people assigned male at birth) each day. 1 ounce (oz) of alcohol, 5 ounces of wine, or 12 ounces of beer are considered to constitute one drink.
Prospects / Prognosis
What can I anticipate if my blood pressure is high?
You probably won’t feel any difference if you have high blood pressure since it doesn’t have any symptoms. But to lower your blood pressure and prevent issues later, it’s crucial to adhere to your doctor’s advice.
You can begin to experience signs of diseases like peripheral artery disease or coronary artery disease if excessive blood pressure causes issues. These consist of:
Should I do a home blood pressure check?
Your doctor may advise you to use a home blood pressure monitor to check your blood pressure often. These automatic electronic monitors are available for purchase online or at the majority of pharmacies. A 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitor may be required for certain persons.
What is the duration of high blood pressure?
You will need to control your high blood pressure for the rest of your life if it is a main condition.
If you have secondary high blood pressure, it is probable that it will decrease if the underlying medical condition is treated. Changing to a new drug might reduce your blood pressure if a certain prescription was the cause of your high blood pressure.
When should I schedule a visit with my doctor?
Visit your doctor annually for a checkup. They will keep an eye on your blood pressure and, if necessary, provide treatment recommendations to keep you healthy.
When ought I to visit the ER?
In case you get acute hypertensive crisis symptoms, dial 911 or your local emergency number. These consist of:
ache in the chest.
a racing heart.
What inquiries ought I to make of my physician?
You may find out more about your risk of high blood pressure or strategies to treat high blood pressure by asking yourself the following questions:
What is the typical value of my blood pressure?
What is the best reading for my blood pressure?
Do I need to use a home blood pressure cuff?
What dietary adjustments should I make?
What kind of exercises must I to perform?
Do I need medicine? If so, which ones and what negative impacts do they have?
If I get pregnant, can I continue taking these medications?
Are there any supplements or over-the-counter medicines I should avoid taking?
Additional typical queries
Can meals or supplements reduce blood pressure?
The DASH diet has been shown to naturally decrease blood pressure. By making precise meal choices, you may raise your potassium levels and lower your salt levels.
There are several additional nutritional approaches to decreasing blood pressure that you may learn about. There isn’t as much or as good of data to support the efficacy of these procedures. They consist of:
increased consumption of fiber, flaxseed, fish oil, or protein.
coffee or tea.
supplements with magnesium or calcium.
vegetarian, low-carb, or Mediterranean diets.
Be a careful consumer and learn more by speaking with your healthcare practitioner.
Cleveland Clinic’s statement
Over time, high blood pressure may creep up on you since it is a dangerous but quiet ailment. Learning your stats might be facilitated by scheduling regular checks with your doctor. Find out about community options (like wellness fairs) where blood pressure checks are offered if you don’t have access to healthcare. The first step to adopting lifestyle adjustments that may help keep your arteries healthy is understanding your blood pressure levels.